Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (2023)


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Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (2)
  • 17 of our best Christmas desserts

Whether you only bake once a year at Christmas, or are a total baking queen or king, here are some top tips to make you a better Christmas baker.

Plum pud advice

Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (3)


I am baking my first Christmas cake. Do you have any tips for a beginner? K. Elliot

Sorry, no. I am a pudding man. So instead we are going to paraphrase the late, great Dorothy Floate's Secret of Success. Do not butter the tin but line it with three layers of lightweight paper. Do not use newspaper as the newsprint leaches into the batter. Butter must be cold and firm. Do not use very fresh eggs. You don't have to use brandy or other spirits; you can use the juice from stewed fruit such as apple or rhubarb. To quote Mrs Floate, "I am repeatedly asked by worried housewives and many young girls . . . why their fruit cakes go down in the centre." This is caused by the evil of overbeating the butter and sugar as the extra air trapped in the batter expands and rises. Importantly, she suggests using the very best ingredients. Although there is no mention of immigrants in her book, I personally recommend buying dried fruit and nuts from busy Middle Eastern grocers who have a high turnover of stock, or buy from fruit growers at farmers markets.

How do I stop fruit from sinking in my fruit cake? P. Findlayson

Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (4)

As the judges at one Country Women's Association cake competition cruelly said to one entrant with a layer of sultanas at the bottom of her Dundee cake, "Good for home, not for show". With fruit cakes, be careful not to beat the butter and sugar until light and fluffy, otherwise the batter will be too full of air to hold up the fruit. The butter and sugar should be just creamed. Some cooks dust their dried fruit in a little flour, which seems to keep them suspended in the batter.


Can I use real cherries instead of fake glace cherries? B. Clendinnen

I think the glace cherry makers of this world would be deeply offended if they heard you referring to their cherries as being fakes. Glace cherries start off being real cherries (see, now you have me doing it as well) - "fresh" cherries, rather - that are blanched and soaked in a sugar syrup. The moisture inside the cherries is drawn out by the sugar solution and in turn the cells of the cherry are filled with the sugar solution. Think of it as embalming for fruit. Glace cherries are so full of sugar almost nothing can live in or on them. So if you're decorating a cake that will be eaten fresh, you can substitute glace for fresh cherries. Do not, however, use fresh cherries in a recipe that calls for glace cherries if the end product will sit around for days or weeks, such as a Christmas cake, as the fresh cherries will go off.

Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (5)

Is there an advantage in creaming the butter and sugar when making Christmas cakes as opposed to "all in together" recipes? S. Robb

For the past 20 years or so my sister-in-law has baked the Christmas cake. She lives in Los Angeles now and they don't celebrate Christmas there. It's too fattening. They have Happy Holidays instead, which is Christmas stripped of any offensive religion and only the shopping frenzy left. I do miss her cakes. As discussed before, creaming butter and sugar dissolves the sugar and slightly leavens the cake but overbeating can lead to a batter that won't suspend the fruit. So some recipes are developed to have an all-in-together method that uses melted butter. The trick with Christmas cakes is to keep the fruit plump and intact. This means that no matter which stage the dried fruit is added, one has to be gentle with it so as to not break the skins, which leads to an overly moist and dense cake without any succulent fruity morsels.


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Why do gingerbread recipes call for ground ginger, not fresh ginger? N. Cooke

Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (6)

There's a line in Leonard Cohen's Suzanne that goes, "And she feeds you tea and oranges / that come all the way from China". Those words, for me, always exemplified the special, precious nature we impart to goods that arrive on the waves, but also the great value we place on them when passed on by someone significant. Gingerbread, made with dried bread, honey and spices, has its roots in medieval cookery. Fresh ginger would never have lasted the journey all the way from India. It arrived preserved in sugar or dried and powdered. Carried on the backs of pack animals by foreigners with different languages, cultures and even skin colour, the exotic narrative of the origin formed part of the spice's allure, like an early form of marketing. Over the centuries the recipes have changed but the taste for ground ginger has remained.

My shortbreads spread when I bake them. J. Tumnell

When one creams butter and sugar one has to be careful not to work the mixture too much. For biscuits that need to remain quite solid, such as shortbread, the sugar needs to dissolve in the water present in the butter until the mixture is pale and creamy. If you continue to beat the mixture further it will begin to incorporate air and become light and fluffy. This is fine if you want the air to expand when the mixture is baked, as in a cake. When you make shortbread though, there is not enough liquid free in the mixture for the proteins in the flour to form elastic bonds. If there was, the protein would trap the expanding gas and you would have little cakes. Instead, the butter melts and there is not enough strength in the shortbread to hold its own shape, so it spreads like a compromising video of a celebrity on the internet.


Can I make a Christmas pudding without suet? F. Mallin

Goodness gracious me! You're still making pudding with suet? Where do you get it? The pale fat surrounding beef kidneys makes incredibly good puddings but many people can't stomach the idea. You can use vegetarian suet, made in Herefordshire, Britain, called Atora. You'll find it online. Unsalted but not cultured butter is my preference. Make sure it is ultrafresh because the cooking and storing of the pud will exacerbate rancid odours in tainted butter. Suet is pure fat. Butter is 85 per cent fat. So add an extra tablespoon or so of flour to absorb the extra water you're adding from the butter.

A recipe for Italian panforte calls for citron. What is it and where can I buy it? M. Davison

Panforte recipes often call for candied citron, a fragrant citrus fruit (Citrus medica) with quite thick but very aromatic peel. If you planned to candy the peel using fresh fruit, you may find it quite difficult to find at this time of year. And if candied or glace citron is unavailable where you normally buy dried fruit, use another good quality candied citrus peel, such as lemon, orange or grapefruit.


I am making Christmas puddings. A friend told me to remove the greaseproof paper and replace it with fresh greaseproof paper before storing in the fridge. G. Cullen

You could do that. And you could wish everyone "happy holidays" while you're at it. Making Christmas pudding with the family is one of thelast festive rituals left to us. The aroma of fruit soaking in brandy, the house filled with fragrant spices, the nuggety little bowl sequestered in the linen cupboard for months to let it age. Leave the double layer of greaseproof paper on the pudding as it forms a seal against air. Also – make a small disc of greaseproof paper on the inside bottom of the pudding bowl as this stops the pudding sticking to the bowl. I simmer the pudding with the bowl sitting on an enamel saucer to avoid the bottom of the bowl getting too hot and the pudding getting too dark.

I used a supermarket-brand ground cinnamon to make my Christmas pudding this year and it tasted different. Why? B. Gillham

One of my bugbears is the substitution of true cinnamon, made from the bark of the Sri Lankan cinnamon tree Cinnamomum verum, with the bark of a cheaper close relative, the cassia tree, Cinnamomum cassia. Cassia bark is thicker, coarser and the ensuing ground spice, known as Dutch cinnamon, baker's cinnamon and even bastard cinnamon, has a bitter aftertaste. Ask the store manager for a refund.

Can I boil coins in my Christmas pudding? T. Trewin


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In the months leading to Christmas 1966 the nation was thrown into turmoil. For generations, Australians had steamed their Christmas puddings with sixpence and thruppence embedded. But with the change of currency to decimal in February that year, Australians were worried about poisoning their families with the new-fangled coins. That year, the Copper and Brass Information Centre announced "another age-old custom is being threatened!" It went on to state that the new five and 10-cent coins could "be inserted into Christmas pudding just prior to serving but they must not be cooked with the pudding", or they would turn green thanks to the copper and nickel in them. The CBIC was far more concerned, however, with the larger size of the new five-cent piece: "The throats or stomachs of small children may not be large enough to accept the five cent coins." So if you want coins in pudding, insert pre-decimal currency. And boil it first, my grandmother would say. "You don't know who has been touching it." You can buy pudding packs of sixpence, shillings and tuppence from coin dealers. Try the Perth Mint.

I have made an old family traditional Christmas pudding in a rag and am not sure how to dry it properly. L. Jones

I would hazard a bet and say you are from Queensland, as many east coast Australians refer to the fabric around a pudding as a "pudding cloth" but Banana Benders use the term "rag". I once ruined a Christmas dinner with a mouldy boiled-in-the-cloth pudding because I didn't let it dry properly. Since that day, I have returned to the family tradition of using a ceramic bowl. Michael Jameson, of Pudding Lane in Newcastle, says the trick to drying the puddings is to hang them as soon as they leave the pot. While an 800-gram pudding might take just 24 hours to dry, a larger pudding can require a week or so. Jameson says it is important that the atmosphere where you dry the pudding is not moist, so avoid areas such as kitchens, bathrooms and laundries. "Many people hang them under the eaves of the verandah," he says. "Then there are those who cheat and dry them with a hair dryer." The most important part of a pudding in a cloth to get dry is the neck where they cloth is gathered, as this is quite thick and can remain moist. After that, store it in a cool, dry place or, if you're in the tropics, try the fridge.

I don't want my children to have alcohol. Does all the alcohol burn off during cooking? J. Patten

No. If you pour brandy into a pan and let the evaporating alcohol ignite from the gas burner you'd be surprised to find that up to 75 per cent of the alcohol can remain in the food. Add alcohol to the end of the cooking process and you're going to evaporate just 10-50 per cent of the wine off. Even the long, slow simmering of an alcohol-laced dish will leave you with about 5 per cent of the original amount of alcohol remaining in the dish.


I'm going to use my mother's Christmas pudding recipe, but it calls for suet. Is there an alternative I can use without compromising the texture or flavour? K. Keane

You could try fresh unsalted butter that has been frozen then grated - but this leaves a slight greasiness that suet doesn't give. You could try vegetable suet, an ingredient that gained popularity with the British during the mad cow disease crisis, and is made from vegetable oil, wheat starch, sunflower oil and pectin. Buy it online at Suet is the fat that surrounds a cow's kidneys. There is nothing that comes close to the rich succulence, ethereal lightness and delicate hint of renal aromas that suet gives to a dish. Remember that recipes such as your mother's evolved with suet, its particular melting point and the way its fat works with the starch and sugar. By substituting suet for another ingredient you are changing the character of the end product – a bit like watching Hamlet with the lead played by Kenneth Williams instead of Kenneth Branagh.

I had to buy my suet for my Christmas pudding in a 1 kilogram lot. I now have 750g left over. What can I do with it? S. Christoe

You are a very lucky person. There are people who dream of having so much animal fat in their possession. In our brave new, risk and fat-averse world, however, having that much fat in the home could render you a pariah in some nicer suburbs. Suet – the fat surrounding beef kidneys - creates a lovely texture in baked goods and puddings. Firstly, don't eat it all at once. Secondly, if you're not going to use it soon, cut it into three, wrap in plastic film and freeze. Grate chilled suet and use as one would butter in shortcrust pastry. You will need to add a little water, as suet does not contain water like butter does. Or perhaps chop the suet into rough cubes, place in a saucepan with a little water over a low heat and slowly melt the fat out of the suet to make the most pure dripping in which to fry potatoes. Consider, however, making a Sussex Pond, in which a lemon and sugar are encased in a suet pastry and steamed in a bowl for several hours. During this time the lemon peel candies and the sugar caramelises, creating a rich, sweet sauce that oozes from the pudding to form a pond in the bowl when opened. A few currants inside the pudding before steaming will transform it into a Kentish Puddle Pudding.

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Brain Food best-of: All your Christmas baking questions, answered (7)Richard Cornish writes about food, drinks and producers for Good Food.

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Which way do you stir a Christmas pudding for good luck? ›

The pudding should be stirred from east to west, in honour of the Magi (Wise Men) who came from the east to visit the baby Jesus. It's also a good excuse to enjoy a wee dram or a cup of festive mulled wine! On Christmas Day the pudding has its own ritual.

What is traditionally hidden in a Christmas pudding? ›

The Christmas pudding coin

Adding silver coins into plum pudding is a fun Christmas tradition. The notion being that whoever finds the coin will have good luck. The tradition may date as far back as early as the 1300s when several small items like dried peas and chicken wishbones were added to the pudding mixture.

Why did my Christmas pudding go Mouldy? ›

If the pudding is in a warm and humid environment (such as a steamy kitchen) then there is a risk that some mould will develop on the pudding. If you live in a warm or humid climate then it may be better to store the pudding in the fridge or to freeze it.

What are the 5 baking facts? ›

Five Weird Things You Didn't Know About Baking
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Sep 13, 2017

Why do you put a penny in a Christmas pudding? ›

The Christmas sixpence

A silver sixpence was placed into the pudding mix and every member of the household gave the mix a stir. Whoever found the sixpence in their own piece of the pudding on Christmas Day would see it as a sign that they would enjoy wealth and good luck in the year to come.

How far in advance should you make Christmas pudding? ›

The pudding can be made 2-3 weeks in advance and frozen in the bowl - thaw it completely before reheating. It can also be made up to 3 days in advance and refrigerated. Just make sure you bring it to room temperature for an hour or so before reheating.

What should be eaten on each of the 12 days of Christmas to ensure good luck for the year ahead? ›

of Christmas it brings good luck for the year ahead.

What is the old name for Christmas pudding? ›

The Christmas pudding originated in the 14th-century as a sort of porridge, originally known as “frumenty”, which bears little resemblance to the dessert we know today.

What are 3 food items that are popular for Christmas dinner? ›

These are the top-rated main dish and side dish recipes you need for a perfect traditional Christmas dinner. They cover the savory side of Christmas dinner, from prime rib, baked ham, and roast turkey to scalloped potatoes, green bean casserole, and cranberry sauce.

What was the first recipe for Christmas pudding? ›

In 1845, cookery writer Eliza Acton wrote the first recipe for a dish actually called "Christmas pudding". The dish is sometimes known as plum pudding (though this can also refer to other kinds of boiled pudding involving dried fruit).

Can you overcook a Christmas pudding? ›

“Quite frankly, overcooking Christmas puddings kills the flavour, and that's a shame after all the effort and wonderful ingredients I've put into it!

What alcohol is good in Christmas pudding? ›

Christmas pudding is traditionally soaked with alcohol, preferably brandy, for flavour maturation. However, many people prefer rum and whisky spirit with high alcohol content.

Why can't you reheat Christmas pudding? ›

Microwaved puddings are frequently ruined. They tend to overheat and get tough & sticky. Steaming lightens the pudding and after taking so much care to make your own pudding it's such a shame to not steam it. Delia doesn't even heat her leftover pudding in the microwave.

What are the golden rules in baking? ›

"My golden rule for baking is make it cold and bake it hot," she said.

What were cupcakes first called? ›

What were cupcakes called in the past? Back in the day, they were called “Number Cakes” or “1234 Cakes”. This was because the recipes back then were simply 1 cup of butter, 2 cups of sugar, 3 cups of flour, 4 eggs, 1 cup of milk, and 1 spoonful of baking soda.

What are the 4 pillars of baking? ›

According to "The Great British Baking Show" season-12 winner Giuseppe Dell'Anno, understanding the four "pillars" of baking — flour, eggs, sugar, and fats — is key for anyone looking to become a star baker in their own right.

What are the 5 common baking mistakes? ›

Common Baking Mistakes (And How to Fix Them)
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  • Nothing is baking evenly. ...
  • Your dough or batter is too tough.

What is the first thing you should do when baking? ›

10 Things To Keep In Mind While Baking For The First Time
  1. 1: Let All the Ingredients Come to Room Temperature.
  2. 2: Don't Skip Steps in the Recipe.
  3. 3: Gather Your Ingredients and Prep Your Kitchen.
  4. 4: Move Your Oven Rack to the Centre Position.
  5. 7: Scoop Dry Ingredients.
  6. 10: Let It Cool.
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Why do Christians eat Christmas pudding? ›

Religious significance

It is believed that a Christmas pudding must contain thirteen ingredients. These ingredients each represent Jesus and each of his twelve disciples. Traditionally, brandy is poured over the Christmas pudding and set aflame before serving. The flames are believed to represent Christ's passion.

Why is it called figgy pudding? ›

Why Is It Called Figgy Pudding? The 'pudding' part of the name makes it a dessert in Britain, but not the custardy type of dish most Americans would associate with the word. At some point the dish included figs, lending itself to the term of 'figgy' as part of a Christmas pudding recipe.

What is the thimble in Christmas pudding? ›

If you're old enough you will remember Christmas puddings containing coins that were said to bring the finder good luck. Before coins, charms were put inside Christmas puddings including a silver coin for wealth, a wishbone for luck, a thimble for thrift, a ring for marriage and an anchor for safe harbour.

What flour do I use for Christmas pudding? ›

Sift combined flours (1 cup (150g) plain flour|1 cup (150g) self-raising flour), bicarbonate of soda (1 tsp bicarbonate of soda), cinnamon (1 tsp ground cinnamon), mixed spice (1 tsp mixed spice) and nutmeg (1 tsp ground nutmeg) into a large bowl.

How do you keep Christmas pudding moist? ›

After you have steamed and cooled your pudding, replace the foil with a freshly buttered piece to keep it moist and store in a cool, dark place, or the fridge, until you are ready to reheat it on Christmas day.

Does the alcohol cook out of Christmas pudding? ›

Conclusion: Christmas puddings contain ethanol that does not all evaporate during the cooking process. However, the rise in BAC after ingestion of a typical slice of Christmas pudding was negligible and unlikely to affect work performance or safety or impair a health care worker's ability to make complex decisions.

What not to eat on New Year's Eve? ›

It's also suggested you should not eat certain things on New Year's Eve, in order to prevent bad luck for the year ahead, such as lobster and chicken. Since lobsters can move backwards, eating them before the stroke of midnight may cause setbacks. For chickens, the idea is similar as they can scratch backwards.

What Christmas food is good luck? ›

Mince Pie Superstition

It was thought lucky to eat one mince pie on each of the twelve days of Christmas (ending with Epiphany, the 6th of January). Alternatively, to refuse one would lead to bad luck.

What is good luck to eat on Christmas Eve? ›

Eat an apple at midnight on Christmas Eve for good health all year round. Stirring the Christmas pudding is good luck and if you are looking to get married the following year, you should stir it at least three times.

What is the last day of Christmas called? ›

Twelfth Night (also known as Epiphany Eve) is a Christian festival on the last night of the Twelve Days of Christmas, marking the coming of the Epiphany.

What charms do you put in Christmas pudding? ›

Often Christmas puddings are served with a decorative sprig of holly on top. Like so many Christmas traditions, this usage stems from the Victorian era. However, the tradition actually harks back to when holly was used to decorate pagan households as it was seen as a fertility symbol and a good luck charm.

What does the pudding symbolize? ›

One superstition says that the pudding should be made with 13 ingredients to represent Jesus and His Disciples and that every member of the family should take turns to stir the pudding with a wooden spoon from east to west, in honour of the Wise Men.

What is the least popular Christmas food? ›

The least popular Thanksgiving foods are candied yams and sweet potato pie. The least popular Christmas foods are persimmon pudding and fruitcake.

What are the top 10 Christmas foods? ›

10 feel-good foods for Christmas
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  • Christmas pudding.

What is the most eaten meat on Christmas? ›

If turkey isn't your choice of protein — even with its 73%-win percentage among most Americans — you can confidently switch to prime rib (69%), roast beef (66%), steak (65%), chicken (64%), roast pork (64%), or ham (62%).

What is the oldest Christmas pudding? ›

It is thought to be the oldest Christmas pudding in the world. “It is believed to be one of 1,000 puddings made by Peek, Frean & Co and sent to naval personnel involved in land-based operations in southern Africa during Christmas 1899.

What is figgy pudding made of? ›

Figgy pudding is a pudding in the British sense of the word, which means it is a steamed cakelike dessert. This particular Christmas version is traditionally made with suet (which is raw beef or mutton fat), eggs, brown sugar, breadcrumbs, spices, dried fruits and, last -- but certainly not least --- brandy.

What's the difference between Christmas cake and Christmas pudding? ›

Christmas cakes contain much the same ingredients as Christmas pudding, but they're a little less dense and of course they're baked in the oven. Traditional Christmas cakes are usually made a couple of months earlier than Christmas puddings as they really improve in flavour and richness with maturation and feeding.

Do you steam Christmas pudding with lid on or off? ›

The pudding basin itself should be tightly covered. The pan or steamer attachment should be covered with a lid as this creates the steamy enviroment in which the pudding cooks, as well as trying to limit the evaporation of water from the pan and the condensation that will build up in the kitchen.

How long will a homemade Christmas pudding keep? ›

Left over Christmas pudding will usually keep for up to 2 weeks if kept refrigerated.

Can you use butter instead of suet in Christmas pudding? ›

I usually make the Christmas pudding recipe with suet, but wonder if I can substitute butter for suet at all? Thanks. Hello, Yes you can use grated butter if you prefer.

What do you drink on Christmas Day? ›

Christmas drinks & cocktail recipes
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  • Christmas martini. A star rating of 0 out of 5. ...
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  • Mulled beer. ...
  • Gingerbread martini.

Why isn't my Christmas pudding dark? ›

We would also mention that after the first steaming the pudding may look a little lighter in colour than you may expect. On the second steaming the pudding will darken in colour. As it re-heats it will also become slightly softer in texture and should be easy to cut once it has been turned out from its basin.

What can I use instead of rum in Christmas pudding? ›

I prefer rum as the spirit of choice for soaking a Christmas Pudding but I do love a good Brandy pudding as well. Irish whiskey, bourbon or cognac will all fit the bill equally well.

How do you wrap Christmas pudding after cooking? ›

Allow the pudding to cool completely, then wrap it tightly in plastic wrap and seal it in an airtight container. The pudding can be frozen or refrigerated until needed. To reheat the pudding, wrap it in a clean, unfloured piece of calico and boil it for an hour.

How long to reheat a 1lb Christmas pudding? ›

Put the lid on the pan and simmer gently for 60 minutes. For mini puddings, simmer gently for 30 minutes. Check the hot water halfway and refill if needed. Cover the oven dish with a lid or kitchen foil and bake in the hot oven for 60 minutes.

What are 3 things bakers do? ›

Knead, roll, cut, and shape dough. Prepare and fill pans, molds, or baking sheets. Set oven temperatures and place items into ovens.

What is an example of a questionnaire for a bakery? ›

Sample bakery survey questions

Was this your first time at the bakery? When was the last time you purchased a product from us? How did you hear about us? How often do you visit us?

What are the basic knowledge in baking? ›

Every baking skill you need to know
  • Softening butter. Butter should be at room temperature before you start, to avoid the batter curdling. ...
  • Melting the chocolate. ...
  • Creaming the butter and eggs. ...
  • Sifting the flour. ...
  • Baking the cake. ...
  • Checking it's cooked. ...
  • Cooling the cake. ...
  • Icing the cake.

What is the golden rule of baking? ›

"My golden rule for baking is make it cold and bake it hot," she said. The food and lifestyle maven said that using frozen butter over a box grater creates perfect size pieces. "You'll have no problem with it making the most beautiful flakiness -- in biscuits, scones, pie crusts and other laminated doughs."

What are the 7 components of baking? ›

What are the 7 basic baking ingredients?
  • Flour.
  • Raising Agent.
  • Salt.
  • Fats & Dairy.
  • Add-Ins.
  • Water.

What is the key for successful baking? ›

To be a successful baker, you need to have the right ingredients. They need to be combined in the right order. Then they need to bake at the right temperature. Change any of these things, and you may end up with tough bread, a fallen cake or runny cookies.

What is a female baker called? ›

The term “baker” dates back to around the year 1000. Another term that meant the same thing from that time was “bakester”. This latter word referred to female bakers; this is similar to how a “webster” was a female weaver, with the “-ster” ending implying a woman.

What makes someone a good baker? ›

Stamina & Strength – It is important for any baker to have good stamina and strength. This is essential because a baker will be on their feet while working. A busy kitchen can keep even the most talented bakers busy. As a result, a baker should be comfortable being on their feet for extended periods of time.

What are the 4 P's of bakery? ›

The 4 P's of Marketing Your Bakery – Talks about how product, price, promotion and place are the critical factors of keeping a steady flow of customers through your bakery.

What are the 5 types of questionnaire questions? ›

Guide to the Five Types of Survey Questions
  • Open-Ended Questions.
  • Multiple Choice Questions.
  • Ordinal Scale Questions.
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What are the 5 questions to ask in a questionnaire? ›

These 5 basic questions—how, why, who, when, and what—don't get as much attention as the more popular questions you include in your survey. But they should. Take a few minutes to answer these 5 questions before you start writing your survey.

What are the three 3 principles in baking? ›

In general, there are three major stages in the baking process: expansion of the dough, drying of the surface, and crust browning.

What is the general rule of thumb for baking? ›

A: The general rule of thumb for converting a recipe from a conventional oven to a convection oven is to either use the same temperature and bake for 75% of the stated time (i.e. if a recipe says to bake for 20 minutes, bake for only 15 if using a convection oven), or you can reduce the oven temperature by 25 degrees F ...

What are the 6 major ingredients in baking? ›

Flour, water, and leavening agents are the ingredients primarily responsible for the characteristic appearance, texture, and flavour of most bakery products. Eggs, milk, salt, shortening, and sugar are effective in modifying these qualities, and various minor ingredients may also be used.


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